Santa Rosa of the Pastos Grandes has a population of 136 inhabitants (INDEC, 2001). In 1900 already organized the Argentine government of Los Andes, Santa Rosa de los Pastos Grandes became the capital of the central department. When concluding the existence of the territory of the Andes in 1943 the area of Pastos Grandes was added to the one of San Antonio de los Cobres.
The town has a school with about 70 students, a chapel and sanitary post. From the remotest times of human settlement, the economy was based on small farms or orchards at the bottom of the fertile valleys irrigated by the water of thaw. Potatoes and quinoa are mainly grown. The vega (relatively humid, relatively warm and fairly protected from the fearsome white winds) has also enabled a minimum of extensive cattle ranching (llamas, alpacas), there are wild species of vicuna.
In a framework of gigantic peaks, some 65 families scattered throughout the area the main economic activity is from agricultural work and exchange for other products.